No, Changing Your Facebook Profile Pic Doesn't Mean You Support Internet.org

Doing the rounds on social media yesterday was a controversial story that changing one's profile photo to the Indian tri-color to support the Digital India initiative covertly counted as a vote for Facebook's Internet.org campaign.
Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg showed his support for PM Modi's Digital India initiative, with a profile picture change emblazoned with the Indian tri-colour, ahead of his townhall meeting with the Indian Prime Minister on Sunday. Many others followed suit, including Prime Minister Narendra Modi himself. Facebook even released a tool where anyone can show they are "helping transform India into a digitally empowered society" by simply changing their Facebook profile pic. It wasn't long before all hell broke lose on the Internet and self-proclaimed activists were claiming anyone changing their profile pic using the tool was covertly support Facebook's Internet.org - now called Free Basics - initiative, which violates Net Neutrality principles.
(Also see: Facebook's Internet.org: New Name, Same Problems)
The key 'evidence' in this assertion was the underlying code captured in a screenshot by Nikhil Vishnu, co-founder and CEO of Mobapper in a public post on Facebook.
"But just before clicking submit I checked the source code of the page. Wow! there I can see the style class named as "internetOrgProfilePicture_prideAvatar". I don't think this is accidental. So what I am promoting here? Internet.org or digital india campaign," he wrote.
This story went viral on a number of media outlets, which arrived at the same erroneous conclusion. Facebook basically said as much, saying it was a mistake by the engineer who used the wrong shorthand name in the Web code. The company's statement reads:
"There is absolutely no connection between updating your profile picture for digital India and Internet.org. An engineer mistakenly used the words "Internet.org profile picture" as a shorthand name he chose for part of the code. But this product in no way connects to or registers support for Internet.org. We are changing the code today to eliminate any confusion."
While much of this confusion lies with a single errant descriptor in the code, Facebook has in the past been criticised online for opaque polls aimed at driving support for Internet.org that don't have a clear Yes/ No option (screenshot above), and don't even tell people they are voting for/ against Internet.org. Facebook claimed to have received support from 17 million people for its Internet.org services in August, though the vast majority who supported probably had no idea they were voting in support of Internet.org.
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Mysql using terminal

sudo /opt/lampp/bin/mysql 

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SQL Joins

SQL: JOINS

This SQL tutorial explains how to use SQL joins with syntax, visual illustrations, and examples.

DESCRIPTION

SQL JOINS are used to retrieve data from multiple tables. A SQL JOIN is performed whenever two or more tables are joined in a SQL statement.
There are 4 different types of SQL joins:
  • SQL INNER JOIN (or sometimes called simple join)
  • SQL LEFT OUTER JOIN (or sometimes called LEFT JOIN)
  • SQL RIGHT OUTER JOIN (or sometimes called RIGHT JOIN)
  • SQL FULL OUTER JOIN (or sometimes called FULL JOIN)
So let's discuss SQL JOIN syntax, look at visual illustrations of SQL JOINS, and explore SQL JOIN examples.

SQL INNER JOIN (SIMPLE JOIN)

Chances are, you've already written a SQL statement that uses an SQL INNER JOIN. It is the most common type of SQL join. SQL INNER JOINS return all rows from multiple tables where the join condition is met.

Syntax

The syntax for the SQL INNER JOIN is:
SELECT columns
FROM table1 
INNER JOIN table2
ON table1.column = table2.column;

Visual Illustration

In this visual diagram, the SQL INNER JOIN returns the shaded area:
SQL
The SQL INNER JOIN would return the records where table1 and table2 intersect.

Example

Here is an example of a SQL INNER JOIN:
SELECT s.supplier_id, s.supplier_name, od.order_date
FROM suppliers AS s
INNER JOIN order_details AS od
ON s.supplier_id = od.supplier_id;
This SQL INNER JOIN example would return all rows from the suppliers and orders tables where there is a matching supplier_id value in both the suppliers and orders tables.
Let's look at some data to explain how the INNER JOINS work:
We have a table called suppliers with two fields (supplier_id and supplier_name). It contains the following data:
supplier_idsupplier_name
10000IBM
10001Hewlett Packard
10002Microsoft
10003NVIDIA
We have another table called orders with three fields (order_id, supplier_id, and order_date). It contains the following data:
order_idsupplier_idorder_date
500125100002003/05/12
500126100012003/05/13
500127100042003/05/14
If we run the SQL statement (that contains an INNER JOIN) below:
SELECT suppliers.supplier_id, suppliers.supplier_name, orders.order_date
FROM suppliers
INNER JOIN orders
ON suppliers.supplier_id = orders.supplier_id;
Our result set would look like this:
supplier_idnameorder_date
10000IBM2003/05/12
10001Hewlett Packard2003/05/13
The rows for Microsoft and NVIDIA from the supplier table would be omitted, since the supplier_id's 10002 and 10003 do not exist in both tables. The row for 500127 (order_id) from the orders table would be omitted, since the supplier_id 10004 does not exist in the suppliers table.

Old Syntax

As a final note, it is worth mentioning that the SQL INNER JOIN example above could be rewritten using the older implicit syntax as follows (but we still recommend using the INNER JOIN keyword syntax):
SELECT suppliers.supplier_id, suppliers.supplier_name, orders.order_date
FROM suppliers, orders
WHERE suppliers.supplier_id = orders.supplier_id;

SQL LEFT OUTER JOIN

Another type of join is called a LEFT OUTER JOIN. This type of join returns all rows from the LEFT-hand table specified in the ON condition and onlythose rows from the other table where the joined fields are equal (join condition is met).

Syntax

The syntax for the SQL LEFT OUTER JOIN is:
SELECT columns
FROM table1
LEFT [OUTER] JOIN table2
ON table1.column = table2.column;
In some databases, the LEFT OUTER JOIN keywords are replaced with LEFT JOIN.

Visual Illustration

In this visual diagram, the SQL LEFT OUTER JOIN returns the shaded area:
SQL
The SQL LEFT OUTER JOIN would return the all records from table1 and only those records from table2 that intersect with table1.

Example

Here is an example of a SQL LEFT OUTER JOIN:
SELECT suppliers.supplier_id, suppliers.supplier_name, orders.order_date
FROM suppliers
LEFT OUTER JOIN orders
ON suppliers.supplier_id = orders.supplier_id;
This LEFT OUTER JOIN example would return all rows from the suppliers table and only those rows from the orders table where the joined fields are equal.
If a supplier_id value in the suppliers table does not exist in the orders table, all fields in the orders table will display as <null> in the result set.
Let's look at some data to explain how LEFT OUTER JOINS work:
We have a table called suppliers with two fields (supplier_id and supplier_name). It contains the following data:
supplier_idsupplier_name
10000IBM
10001Hewlett Packard
10002Microsoft
10003NVIDIA
We have a second table called orders with three fields (order_id, supplier_id, and order_date). It contains the following data:
order_idsupplier_idorder_date
500125100002003/05/12
500126100012003/05/13
If we run the SQL statement (that contains a LEFT OUTER JOIN) below:
SELECT suppliers.supplier_id, suppliers.supplier_name, orders.order_date
FROM suppliers
LEFT OUTER JOIN orders
ON suppliers.supplier_id = orders.supplier_id;
Our result set would look like this:
supplier_idsupplier_nameorder_date
10000IBM2003/05/12
10001Hewlett Packard2003/05/13
10002Microsoft<null>
10003NVIDIA<null>
The rows for Microsoft and NVIDIA would be included because a LEFT OUTER JOIN was used. However, you will notice that the order_date field for those records contains a <null> value.

Old Syntax

As a final note, it is worth mentioning that the LEFT OUTER JOIN example above could be rewritten using the older implicit syntax that utilizes the outer join operator (+) as follows (but we still recommend using the LEFT OUTER JOIN keyword syntax):
SELECT suppliers.supplier_id, suppliers.supplier_name, orders.order_date
FROM suppliers, orders
WHERE suppliers.supplier_id = orders.supplier_id(+);

SQL RIGHT OUTER JOIN

Another type of join is called a SQL RIGHT OUTER JOIN. This type of join returns all rows from the RIGHT-hand table specified in the ON condition and only those rows from the other table where the joined fields are equal (join condition is met).

Syntax

The syntax for the SQL RIGHT OUTER JOIN is:
SELECT columns
FROM table1
RIGHT [OUTER] JOIN table2
ON table1.column = table2.column;
In some databases, the RIGHT OUTER JOIN keywords are replaced with RIGHT JOIN.

Visual Illustration

In this visual diagram, the SQL RIGHT OUTER JOIN returns the shaded area:
SQL
The SQL RIGHT OUTER JOIN would return the all records from table2 and only those records from table1 that intersect with table2.

Example

Here is an example of a SQL RIGHT OUTER JOIN:
SELECT orders.order_id, orders.order_date, suppliers.supplier_name
FROM suppliers
RIGHT OUTER JOIN orders
ON suppliers.supplier_id = orders.supplier_id;
This RIGHT OUTER JOIN example would return all rows from the orders table and only those rows from the suppliers table where the joined fields are equal.
If a supplier_id value in the orders table does not exist in the suppliers table, all fields in the suppliers table will display as <null> in the result set.
Let's look at some data to explain how RIGHT OUTER JOINS work:
We have a table called suppliers with two fields (supplier_id and supplier_name). It contains the following data:
supplier_idsupplier_name
10000Apple
10001Google
We have a second table called orders with three fields (order_id, supplier_id, and order_date). It contains the following data:
order_idsupplier_idorder_date
500125100002013/08/12
500126100012013/08/13
500127100022013/08/14
If we run the SQL statement (that contains a RIGHT OUTER JOIN) below:
SELECT orders.order_id, orders.order_date, suppliers.supplier_name
FROM suppliers
RIGHT OUTER JOIN orders
ON suppliers.supplier_id = orders.supplier_id;
Our result set would look like this:
order_idorder_datesupplier_name
5001252013/08/12Apple
5001262013/08/13Google
5001272013/08/14<null>
The row for 500127 (order_id) would be included because a RIGHT OUTER JOIN was used. However, you will notice that the supplier_name field for that record contains a <null> value.

Old Syntax

As a final note, it is worth mentioning that the RIGHT OUTER JOIN example above could be rewritten using the older implicit syntax that utilizes the outer join operator (+) as follows (but we still recommend using the RIGHT OUTER JOIN keyword syntax):
SELECT orders.order_id, orders.order_date, suppliers.supplier_name
FROM suppliers, orders
WHERE suppliers.supplier_id(+) = orders.supplier_id;

SQL FULL OUTER JOIN

Another type of join is called a SQL FULL OUTER JOIN. This type of join returns all rows from the LEFT-hand table and RIGHT-hand table with nulls in place where the join condition is not met.

Syntax

The syntax for the SQL FULL OUTER JOIN is:
SELECT columns
FROM table1
FULL [OUTER] JOIN table2
ON table1.column = table2.column;
In some databases, the FULL OUTER JOIN keywords are replaced with FULL JOIN.

Visual Illustration

In this visual diagram, the SQL FULL OUTER JOIN returns the shaded area:
SQL
The SQL FULL OUTER JOIN would return the all records from both table1 and table2.

Example

Here is an example of a SQL FULL OUTER JOIN:
SELECT suppliers.supplier_id, suppliers.supplier_name, orders.order_date
FROM suppliers
FULL OUTER JOIN orders
ON suppliers.supplier_id = orders.supplier_id;
This FULL OUTER JOIN example would return all rows from the suppliers table and all rows from the orders table and whenever the join condition is not met, <nulls> would be extended to those fields in the result set.
If a supplier_id value in the suppliers table does not exist in the orders table, all fields in the orders table will display as <null> in the result set. If a supplier_id value in the orders table does not exist in the suppliers table, all fields in the suppliers table will display as <null> in the result set.
Let's look at some data to explain how FULL OUTER JOINS work:
We have a table called suppliers with two fields (supplier_id and supplier_name). It contains the following data:
supplier_idsupplier_name
10000IBM
10001Hewlett Packard
10002Microsoft
10003NVIDIA
We have a second table called orders with three fields (order_id, supplier_id, and order_date). It contains the following data:
order_idsupplier_idorder_date
500125100002013/08/12
500126100012013/08/13
500127100042013/08/14
If we run the SQL statement (that contains a FULL OUTER JOIN) below:
SELECT suppliers.supplier_id, suppliers.supplier_name, orders.order_date
FROM suppliers
FULL OUTER JOIN orders
ON suppliers.supplier_id = orders.supplier_id;
Our result set would look like this:
supplier_idsupplier_nameorder_date
10000IBM2013/08/12
10001Hewlett Packard2013/08/13
10002Microsoft<null>
10003NVIDIA<null>
<null><null>2013/08/14
The rows for Microsoft and NVIDIA would be included because a FULL OUTER JOIN was used. However, you will notice that the order_date field for those records contains a <null> value.
The row for supplier_id 10004 would be also included because a FULL OUTER JOIN was used. However, you will notice that the supplier_id and supplier_name field for those records contain a <null> value.

Old Syntax

As a final note, it is worth mentioning that the FULL OUTER JOIN example above could not have been written in the old syntax without using a UNION